For nearly half a century before 9/11, the discourse surrounding the concept of jihad was dominated by a specific narrative. This narrative promoted the idea that the Islamic world and the Western world are inherently opposed, depicting them as adversaries or enemies. In this context, representatives from political Islam played a prominent role. During this period, there was a notable absence of substantial counter-narratives or alternative interpretations. This prolonged emphasis on a singular narrative contributed to the emergence of organizations like al-Qaeda. The rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan during the 1990s contributed to the popularization of jihadi literature.
The tragic events of 9/11 were a watershed moment. The United States had a legitimate right to punish those responsible for the attacks. However, the military responses that followed from the Western world led to a rise in the growth of militant groups. This, in turn, significantly impacted the Muslim world, which bore the brunt of religiously motivated terrorism. Consequently, there arose a need to reevaluate the literature related to jihad, leading to heated debates and discussions among scholars and the wider public.
The term "jihad" in the Quran is not used in a singular, specific sense. It actually means "struggle" or "effort", and it's not just about holy war. When the Fuqahā (Islamic jurists and experts in fiqh) discussed jihad, they focused on its martial aspect, emphasizing the concept of "Holy War" or armed struggle against enemies. This specialization in the combat-related meaning of jihad was partly because it aligned with their legal and jurisprudential concerns. They provided detailed guidance on the rules of engagement, ethics in warfare, and the conditions under which armed jihad could be declared. As for the Sufis, they have simplified the meaning of jihad to focus primarily on the inner spiritual struggle of an individual against their own shortcomings, desires, and ego.
But the problem started when modern jihadist groups arose and they redefined the term “jihad” to fit their reactionary and insurgent agendas. These groups introduced interpretations of jihad that deviated significantly from the traditional understanding held by earlier scholars and Islamic jurisprudence. In doing so, they effectively transformed the concept into a cornerstone of their ideology. They introduced radical interpretations of religious texts, manipulating historical and theological concepts to justify their actions.
After the 9/11 attacks, Western nations labeled the actions of jihadist groups as "terrorism." This labeling had significant implications for the response to these groups. At this stage, new discussions about Jihad began. Some of this work was undertaken by governments themselves. Additionally, due to the gravity of the situation, there was mounting pressure on intellectuals and religious scholars to explain their stance on this issue. As terrorist groups continued to expand their activities and even started targeting Muslim states, this situation gave rise to confusion among the public regarding the true teachings of Islam about jihad.
In the two decades following 9/11, there have been extensive discussions on various aspects related to Jihad. There's no historical precedent for the amount of work and analysis undertaken on this topic from such diverse angles within such a short time frame. These discussions have involved governments, intellectuals, religious scholars, policymakers, think tanks, and the broader public, contributing to a deeper understanding of Jihad and its evolving role in global landscape.
Militants have been extensively involved in producing propaganda materials like written content, audio recordings, and videos to attract the public and recruit young individuals. Their emphasis on propaganda materials became more pronounced, particularly after the events of 9/11. However, they have made limited contributions to scholarly literature that would provide academic insights into their distinct views on jihad. An abundance of scholarly work has been produced worldwide with the purpose of countering their narrative. However, the militants themselves have shown little interest in engaging with or addressing these responses in a meaningful way. Instead of participating in constructive dialogues or scholarly discussions, they chose to prioritize the production and dissemination of propaganda materials to further their cause.
After the 9/11 attacks, Jihadist literature increasingly aimed at recruiting new members, particularly young individuals who could be radicalized and motivated to join the cause. It employed persuasive narratives and emotional appeals to attract sympathizers and recruits, and increasingly incorporated conspiracy theories, and a sense of victimhood, portraying Muslims as under attack by a hostile world order. The concept of martyrdom (shahada) became a central theme in post-9/11 jihadist literature. It was used to glorify suicide attacks and portray those who died in such attacks as heroes.
Differing from the militant narrative, discussions on jihad led by moderate scholars have focused on various aspects, delving into its role, the accurate interpretation, and the evolving definition within the framework of contemporary global affairs. In this context, prominent religious scholars in the Muslim world have made significant contributions. Specifically, the efforts of Middle Eastern Gulf states to combat extremism are highly commendable. These states have actively backed educational programs, initiatives, and institutions with the goal of countering radicalization and fostering a more tolerant and moderate interpretation of Islam. The Gulf countries are currently leading the way in promoting interfaith dialogue, allocating substantial funds for this purpose. They have also revamped the educational curriculum, placing a strong emphasis on the moral aspects of jihad to educate and guide the youth effectively.
The discussions regarding Jihad in Pakistan after 9/11 have mostly revolved around the security framework. While there have been some efforts to explore the interpretations of jihad, the mindset of terrorists, and the misuse of religion, these initiatives have not been as comprehensive as the gravity of the terrorism issue in the country demands. Additionally, much of this work has been conducted at an individual level rather than through organized and systematic efforts.
In Pakistan, the majority of the population is familiar with a singular interpretation of Jihad. There is easy access to materials promoting radical understandings of this concept, including content disseminated by militant groups.
In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, many Muslim states embarked on efforts to promote the accurate understanding of the term "Jihad" within their societies. Through their dedication and sincere efforts, they successfully shielded their youth from falling prey to extremist ideologies. In contrast, Pakistan asserts on the global stage that it has made big sacrifices in the fight against terrorism. However, the harsh truth is that the state has failed to protect its youth from being influenced by extremism.